唯識新引273

張尚德老師 湘潭道南書院




唯識新引

《成唯識論》新解

唯識學會創辦人張尚德述

達摩書院副院長黃高証

273

莫 騙

《成唯識論》卷九

II 十波羅蜜多

一、總舉十行門

十勝行者。即是十種波羅蜜多。

施有三種。謂財施。無畏施。法施。

(述記:財是身任持。無畏是心任持。法施是善法任持。)

戒有三種。謂律儀戒。攝善法戒。饒益有情戒。

忍有三種。謂耐怨害忍。安受苦忍。諦察法忍。

精進有三種。謂被甲精進。攝善精進。利樂精進。

靜慮有三種。謂安住靜慮。引發靜慮。辦事靜慮。

般若有三種。謂生空無分別慧。法空無分別慧。俱空無分別慧。

方便善巧有二種。謂迴向方便善巧。拔濟方便善巧。

願有二種。謂求菩提願。利樂他願。

力有二種。謂思擇力。修習力。

(述記:攝論說。由思擇.修習二力。令前六度無間現行。)

智有二種。謂受用法樂智。成熟有情智。

(述記:攝論雲。謂由前六成立妙智。受用法樂。成熟有情。)

二、自性出體門

此十性者。施以無貪及彼所起三業為性。

戒以受學菩薩戒時三業為性。

忍以無瞋精進審慧及彼所起三業為性。

精進以勤及彼所起三業為性。

靜慮但以等持為性。

後五皆以擇法為性。說是根本後得智故。

有義第八以欲勝解及信為性。願以此三為自性故。

(述記:餘義無諍。唯願不以慧為自性。說是後得智者。唯後得智中起故。)

此說自性。若並眷屬。一一皆以一切俱行功德為性。

三、明相門(七最勝)

此十相者。要七最勝之所攝受方可建立波羅蜜多。

一安住最勝。謂要安住菩薩種性。二依止最勝。謂要依止大菩提心。三意樂最勝。謂要悲湣一切有情。四事業最勝。謂要具行一切事勝。五巧便最勝。謂要無相智所攝受。六迴向最勝。謂要迴向無上菩提。七清淨最勝。謂要不為二障間雜。

(述記:無相智所攝受者。即第六不執三輪清淨等。)

若非此七所攝受者。所行施等非到彼岸。

由斯施等十對波羅蜜多一一皆應四句分別。

(述記義演:四句四句者。一有施非度。如人行施不與七最勝相應。二有度非施。謂隨喜他施與七最勝相應。三有只施。只度謂自行施與七最勝相應。四有非施非度。謂二乘等所修五度。)

四、不增減門

此但有十不增減者。謂十地中對治十障證十真如無增減故。

復次前六不增減者。為除六種相違障故。漸次修行諸佛法故。漸次成熟諸有情故。此如餘論廣說應知。

(述記:慳吝、犯戒、瞋恚、懈怠、散亂、惡慧。)

又施等三增上生道。感大財體及眷屬故。精進等三決定勝道。能伏煩惱成熟有情及佛法故。諸菩薩道唯有此二。

又前三種饒益有情。施彼資財。不損惱彼。堪忍彼惱而饒益故。精進等三。對治煩惱。雖未伏滅。而能精勤修對治彼諸善加行永伏永滅諸煩惱故。

又由施等不住涅槃。及由後三不住生死。為無住處涅槃資糧。由此前六不增不減。

後唯四者。為助前六令修滿足不增減故。方便善巧助施等三。願助精進。力助靜慮。智助般若令修滿故。如解深密廣說應知。

五 次第門

十次第者。謂由前前引發後後。及由後後持淨前前。又前前麁。後後細故。易難修習。次第如是。

六 釋名門

釋總別名。如餘處說。

(述記:六釋名者。七十八.解深密等。解總名。雲何緣此等名波羅蜜多?由五緣故。……對法十一說。由十二最勝相應故。又波羅。是所知彼岸義。蜜多。是到義。)

七 修門

此十修者。有五種修。一依止任持修。二依止作意修。三依止意樂修。四依止方便修。五依止自在修。依此五修修習十種波羅蜜多皆得圓滿。如集論等廣說其相。

八 攝門

此十攝者。謂十一一皆攝一切波羅蜜多。互相順故。依修前行而引後者。前攝於後。必待前故。後不攝前。不待後故。

依修後行持淨前者。後攝於前。持淨前故前。不攝後。非持淨故。

若依純雜而修習者。展轉相望應作四句。

(述記義演:有施非波羅蜜多,行施不迴向菩提。有波羅蜜多非施,謂於波羅蜜多能勸勵讚美隨喜慶悅等。有亦施亦波羅蜜多,謂諸行施迴向菩提。第四句可知。)

九 開合門

此實有十而說六者。應知後四第六所攝。開為十者。第六唯攝無分別智。後四皆是後得智攝。緣世俗故。

十 五果門

此十果者。有漏有四。除離繫果。無漏有四。除異熟果。

而有處說具五果者。或互相資。或二合說。

(述記:對法十二說。)

十一 三學相攝門

十與三學互相攝者。戒學有三。一律儀戒。謂正遠離所應離法。二攝善法戒。謂正修證應修證法。三饒益有情戒。謂正利樂一切有情。

此與二乘有共不共。甚深廣大。如餘處說。

定學有四。一大乘光明定。謂此能發照了大乘理教行果智光明故。二集福王定。謂此自在集無邊福如王勢力無等雙故。三賢守定。謂此能守世出世間賢善法故。四健行定。謂佛菩薩大健有情之所行故。

此四所緣,對治,堪能,引發,作業,如餘處說。

慧學有三。一加行無分別慧。二根本無分別慧。三後得無分別慧。

此三自性,所依,因緣,所緣,行等,如餘處說。

如是三慧。初二位中種具有三。現唯加行。於通達位現二。種三。見道位中無加行故。於修習位。七地已前若種若現俱通三種。八地以去現二種三。無功用道違加行故。所有進趣皆用後得無漏觀中任運起故。究竟位中現種俱二。加行現種俱已捨故。

若自性攝戒唯攝戒。定攝靜慮。慧攝後五。若並助伴。皆具相攝。

若隨用攝戒攝前三。資糧自體眷屬性故。定攝靜慮。慧攝後五。精進三攝。遍策三故。

若隨顯攝。戒攝前四。前三如前。及守護故。定攝靜慮。慧攝後五。

十二 五位現種相攝門

此十位者。五位皆具。修習位中其相最顯。然初二位頓悟菩薩種通二種。現唯有漏。漸悟菩薩若種若現俱通二種。已得生空無漏觀故。通達位中種通二種。現唯無漏。於修習位。七地已前種現俱通有漏無漏。八地以去種通二種。現唯無漏。究竟位中若現若種俱唯無漏。

十三 分位分別門

此十因位有三種名。一名遠波羅蜜多。謂初無數劫。爾時施等勢力尚微。被煩惱伏未能伏彼。由斯煩惱不覺現行。二名近波羅蜜多。謂第二無數劫。爾時施等勢力漸增非煩惱伏而能伏彼。由斯煩惱故意方行。三名大波羅蜜多。謂第三無數劫。爾時施等勢力轉增能畢竟伏一切煩惱。由斯煩惱永不現行。猶有所知微細現種及煩惱種故未究竟。

此十義類差別無邊。恐厭繁文略示綱要。

十於十地雖實皆修。而隨相增地地修一。

雖十地行有無量門。而皆攝在十到彼岸。


英譯(韋達)

II. THE TEN PARAMITAS

I. Definition and Varieties

The ten  excellent moral exercises are the ten Paramitas.

1. Dana. -  Gifts or charity.

Gifts are  of three kinds: (1) material gifts, sustaining the body; (2) gifts of  security or freedom from fear, sustaining the mind; and (3) gifts of Dharma,  sustaining the good Dharma.

2. Sila. -  Morality or observance of commandments.

Commandments  are of three kinds: (1) Commandments governing personal conduct; (2)  commandments for the acquisition of good Dharma; and (3) commandments for the  bestowal of benefits and advantages on sentient beings,

3.Ksanti.  - Patient endurance.

Patient  endurance is of three kinds: (1) to endure patiently resentment and injury;  (2) to accept quietly sorrow and suffering; and (3) to examine patiently and  adhere to the Dharma.

4. Virya.  - Zeal in making progress.

Zeal in  making progress is of three kinds;(1) zeal in producing great resolutions;  (2) zeal in acquiring good spiritual dharmas; and (3) zeal in promoting the  well-being and happiness of sentient beings.

5. Dhyana.  - Meditation and contemplation.

Meditation  is of three kinds: (1) meditation leading to Samadhi; (2) meditation leading  to the unfoldment of supernatural powers; and (3) meditation leading to the  successful accomplishment of great tasks.

6. Prajna.  - Discernment

Prajna is  of three kinds: (1) Pudgalasunyata-non-discriminating Prajna (intuitive  discernment of the voidness of the Atman); (2)  Dharmasunyata-non-discriminating-Prajna (intuitive discernment of the  voidness of all dharmas); (3)  Pudgalasunyata-dharmasunyata-non-discriminating-Prajna (intuitive discernment  of the voidness of Atman and all dharmas).

7.  Upayakausala. - Skill in resorting to appropriate expedients.

Skill in  resorting to appropriate expedients is of two kinds: (1) Skill in turning the  mind towards Mahabodhi (Supreme Enlightenment); and (2) skill in delivering  sentient beings from suffering.

8.  Pranidhana. - Pious vows.

Pious vows  are of two kinds: (1) pious vows for attaining Bodhi; and (2) vows for  promoting the well-being and happiness of sentient beings.

9.      Bala. - Power of fulfilment.

Power of  fulfilment is of two kinds: (1) the power of cogitation; and (2) the power of  self-cultivation. These powers are exercised in order that the first six  Paramitas may never be interrupted.

10.    Jnana. - Transcendental wisdom,

[According  to the Samgraha Sastra, this Jnana is evolved as a result of the practice of  the first six Paramitas.] It is of two kinds: (1) wisdom with which the  Bodhisattva enjoys the 'felicity of Dharma'; and (2) wisdom with which he  enables sentient beings to reach 'spiritual maturity'.


2. What do the ten Paramitas consist of?

What is their essential nature?

1. Dana,  charity, consists of alobha, non-covetousness, and the three deeds (mind,  body, and voice) which proceed from Alobha.

2. Sila,  morality, consists of the three deeds learned by the Bodhisattva at his  ordination ceremony, during which he receives instructions on the  commandments to be observed by him.

3. Ksanti,  patient endurance, consists of advesa (non-anger, i.e., pardon for injuries),  virya (zeal), investigative Prajna, and the three deeds proceeding from  advesa.

4. Virya,  zeal in making progress, consists of diligent effort and the three deeds  proceeding therefrom.

5. Dhyana,  meditation and contemplation, consists only of Samadhi. [It does not include  states of dispersed mind.]

6-10. The  last five Paramitas consist of criticism or discernment of the dharmas (that  is to say,  prajna), for the Samgraha teaches that the sixth Paramita  (Prajna) is Mulajnana (Root or Fundamental Wisdom) and the last four are  Prsthalabdhajnana (Subsequent Wisdom, i.e., wisdom succeeding upon or arising  from Primary Wisdom).

According  to certain scholars, the eighth, Pranidhanaparamita (pious vows), consists of  desire (Chanda), decision or resolve (Adhimoksa) and belief (Sraddha), for  every vow is by its own nature a desire or wish, etc. [No dispute on the  subject of the other Paramitas: these scholars say only that Pranidhana is  not by its own nature Prajna. If the Samgraha says that Pranidhanaparamita is  Subsequent Wisdom, it is because the Bodhisattva produces Pranidhana in the  course of the unfolding of this wisdom.]

We have  examined what the Paramitas consist of, that is to say, their self-nature  (svabhava). If we consider them with their 'relatives or family-members', we  shall say that each of them consists also of all the merits or good qualities  that accompany it.


3. The Seven Excellences

For these  virtues to receive the name of Paramitas, they must be comprised and embodied  in the seven excellences

1.      Excellence of establishment, which means that the yogin must be well  established in the Gotra (seed-nature) of the Bodhisattvas.

2.      Excellence of the Supporting basis' (asraya), which means that the virtues  must have their supporting basis in the mind and heart of Mahabodhi.

3.      Excellence of desire and aspiration, which means that the yogin must have  compassion and benevolence towards all sentient beings.

4.      Excellence of profession, which means that the virtues must be accompanied by  all deeds that conform to their spirit.

5.      Excellence of expedients, which means that the Paramitas must be comprised in  the wisdom that is free from nimitta, in such a way that, in performing deeds  of charity, the Manovijnana does not 'cling’ to the giver, the receiver, or  the gifts received or given.

6.      Excellence of dedication, which mean that the yogin must dedicate himself and  turn his Paramita-virtues to Anuttarasamyaksambodhi (Supreme Enlightenment).

7.      Excellence of purity, which means that the virtues must not be tainted by, or  mixed with, the two Avaranas.

If the  Paramita-virtues are not comprised and embodied in these seven excellences,  the charitable deeds, etc., performed by the yogin will not enable him to  reach the other shore.

It follows  from this that, with regard to the relations between the ten virtues,  charity, etc., and Paramita, i.e., 'reaching the other shore’, one can  establish four alternatives: (1) charity which is Paramita; (2) charity which  is not Paramita; (3) Paramita which is not charity, (4) neither charity nor  Paramita, and so forth.

 

4. Number of Paramitas

The  Paramitas are ten in number, neither more nor less, because the Bodhisattvas  must, in all the ten Bhumis, oppose ten Avaranas, and realize ten  Bhutatathatas.

1.      First, the first six Paramitas are six, neither more nor less, because they  are intended to expel six obstacles which contradict them (miserliness,  immorality, hostility, laziness, distraction, and false views), in order to  acquire progressively the Buddhadharmas (the ten powers, etc.), and to  develop sentient beings progressively to the fullest extent. These three  points are explained in other treatises.

2.      Again, the first three Paramitas, charity, etc., are 'the path of increase  and promotion’, because they produce riches, an excellent body, and good  companions respectively; the last three, zeal, etc., are ‘the path of  decisive victory’, because, respectively, they suppress klesas and cause sentient  beings and Buddhadharmas to grow and develop to the fullest extent. The paths  of all Bodhisattvas fall into these two categories.

3.      Further, by virtue of the first three Paramitas, the Bodhisattva renders  service to sentient beings by giving them money and other good things for  their benefit, avoiding injuring or tormenting them, and patiently enduring  their outrages, thus doing good to them. The last three, zeal, etc., oppose  the klesas; although Viryaparamita neither suppresses nor cuts off the  klesas, nevertheless it invigorates all good preparatory exercises (prayaga)  which oppose the klesas; Dhyanaparamita suppresses the klesas and  Prajnaparamita eliminates them.

4.      Furthermore, by virtue of the first three Paramitas, the Bodhisattva does not  establish himself in Nirvana permanently; by virtue of the last three, he  does not establish himself in Samsara (rounds of birth and death, i.e.,  transmigration): the six are therefore the preparation, i.e., the sambhara,  for Apratisthitanirvana (attainment of Nirvana without abiding in it).

Therefore  the first six Paramitas are six, neither more nor less.

5.      Finally, the last four of the ten Paramitas must be four, because their  function is to ensure the perfection of the first six.

Skilful  expedients aid the first three Paramitas, charity, etc.; pious vows aid the  fourth, zeal; the power of fulfilment aids the fifth, meditation and  contemplation; transcendental wisdom aids the sixth, Prajnaparamita.

These  points have been explained in detail in the Samdhinirmocana Sutra.


5. Order of the Paramitas

The ten  Paramitas are set forth in the present order because the preceding one  produces the following one; the one following confirms and purifies the one  preceding.

Further,  the preceding ones are crude compared with the following ones; the practice  of the preceding ones is comparatively easier.


6. Names of the Paramitas

Why are  these virtues called Paramitas? And why are they called Dana-paramita, etc.?

These  general and special names have been explained in other treatises. [According  to K'uei Chi, five explanations are given in the Yogasastra, 78, and the  Samdhinirmocana Sutra, and twelve in the Abhidharma. At the same time,  etymologically, 'para' means ‘the other shore’ and ‘mita' means 'reaching’;  'paramita' therefore means 'reaching the other shore'; that is to say, the  six paramita-virtues ferry the ascetic across the sea of mortality to  Nirvana.]


7. Cultivation of the Paramitas

As  explained in detail in the Abhidharmasamuccaya and other texts, the  cultivation of the ten Paramitas enables the Bodhisattva to attain perfection  by reason of a quintuple culture, i.e., five methods of cultivation, namely,  (1) cultivation dependent on firm adherance to the Paramitas; (2) cultivation  dependent on constant attention to the Paramitas; (3) cultivation dependent  on keen aspiration after the Paramitas; (4) cultivation dependent on skilful  expedients ; and (5) cultivation dependent on self-realization with a mind  free from obstacles and perverted views.


8. Reciprocal Inclusion

One may  say that each of the ten Paramitas comprises the nine others, because they  are interrelated.

The  practice of the Paramita that precedes leads to the Paramita that follows.  From this point of view, the preceding one comprises the following one, which  depends on it; the one following does not comprise the one preceding, which  does not depend on it.

But the  practice of the subsequent Paramita confirms and purifies the preceding one.  From this point of view, the succeeding one comprises the one preceding, but  not vice versa.

In  considering mixed or non-mixed practices of the Paramitas, there are four  alternatives; [e.g., (1) Charity which is not Paramita, as in the case of a  person who gives in charity for selfish purposes and not for the realization  of Bodhi; (2) Paramita which is not Charity, as in the case of a person who  has no money to give in charity, but who encourages others to do so and  rejoices with them; (3) acts that are both Charity and Paramita, as in the case  of a person who gives in charity and dedicates the merits to  Anuttarasamyaksambodhi; and (4) deeds that appear to be charitable and are,  in reality, neither Charity nor Paramita … K'uei Chi.]

 

9. Ten and Six

In fact,  there are ten Paramitas. If a list of six is drawn up, it is because the last  four are comprised in the sixth, Prajnaparamita. The reason why the Paramitas  are divided into ten in number is that the sixth, Prajnaparamita, proceeds  from Nirvikalpakaj nana (Fundamental, Non-discriminating Wisdom), while the  fast four proceed from Prsthalabdhajnana (Subsequent Wisdom, i.e., wisdom  that follows or arises out of Fundamental Wisdom), for they are related to  ordinary or worldly wisdom (Samvrti).


10. Fruits of the Ten Paramitas

Among the  fruits of the ten Paramitas, there are four that are impure, excluding the  Visamyogaphala, which is always pure  and four that are pure, excluding  the Vipakaphala.

One text,  Abhidharma, 12, says that the Paramitas have five fruits. This is because it  either considers the mutual assistance which the fruits lend to one another,  or considers, together, the pure and impure fruits which the Paramitas can  bear.


11. The Paramitas and the Three Branches of Learning (Siksas)

The ten  Paramitas and the three branches of learning (Siksa), Sila, Samadhi and  Prajna, are mutually inclusive.

1.      Learning in respect of Sila (i.e., Adhisilam Siksa or moral commandments to  be observed by a Bodhisattva) is of three kinds:

(1)  Commandments in the form of rules and regulations, the observance of which  signifies total abstention from dharmas wherefrom one should totally abstain;

(2)    Commandments relating to the acquisition of good dharmas, which signifies  cultivation and realization of dharmas which should be cultivated and  realized; and

(3)    Commandments relating to the bastowal of benefits on sentient beings, which  signifies the procurement of happiness and well-being for all sentient  beings.

Between  these three branches of learning and the two Vehicles there are certain  identities and certain differences.

As regards  the profundity and comprehensiveness of the moral commandments to be observed  by Bodhisattvas, this has been explained in other treatises.


2.      Learning in respect of Samadhi (Adhicittam Siksa) is of four kinds:

(1)    Mahayana-illuminating Samadhi, so called because this meditation can produce  the light of wisdom which illuminates the principles, teachings, practices,  and fruits of the Greater Vehicle.

(2)    Merit-accumulating Royal Samadhi, so called because this meditation can  spontaneously accumulate merits which are as boundless as the power of a king  is unequalled.

(3)    Virtue-maintaining Samadhi, so called because this meditation can guard and  maintain good mundane and supramundane dharmas.

(4)    All-powerful Samadhi, so called because this Samadhi is practised by great  heroes, that is, Buddhas and Boddhisattvas.

These four  Samadhis are characterized and distinguished by their objects, their  antitheses, their capacities, their fruits, and their activities.

3. The  learning in respect of Prajna (Adhiprajnam Siksa) is of three kinds

 (1)  Prayogika-nirvikalpika Prajna, i.e., non-discriminating transcendental wisdom  which stresses the importance of intensified effort for moral advancement.

(2}  Mula-nirvikalpika Prajna, i.e., the fundamental non-discriminating wisdom.

(3)  Prsthalabdha-nirvikalpika Prajna, i.e., the non-discriminating wisdom that  follows or arises out of the fundamental wisdom.

a.      The explanation of these three wisdoms (jnanas) in respect of their nature  (svabhava), their supporting basis (asraya), their cause (hetupratyaya),  their object (alambana), their mode of activity (akara), etc., may be found  in other treatises (e.g., in the Samgraha Sastra).

b.      The five stages of the Path and the three Prajnas

In the  first two stages (Sambhara and Prayoga), the three Prajnas exist in the state  of Bija while the first of them, i.e., the Prayogika-nirvikalpika Prajna, is  in actual manifestation.

In the  Prativedha stage (the third stage, that of unimpeded penetrating  understanding), the second and third Prajnas (i.e., the Mula-nirvikalpika  Prajna and the Prsthalabdha-nirvikalpika prajna) are in actual manifestation  while all the three Prajnas are in the state of Bija. The reason why the  first Prajna (Prayoga) is not in manifestation is that it is not present  during the Darsanamarga period (the third stage).

In the  Bhavana stage (i.e., the fourth) it is necessary to distinguish: up to and  including the seventh Bhumi, the three Prajnas are both in the state of Bija  and in actual manifestation; from the eighth Bhumi, the three Prajnas are in  the. state of Bija, while the last two are in manifestation. The reason why  the first is not active is that the Anabhogamarga (the stage in which pure  intuition proceeds spontaneously and effortlessly) is incompatible with the  first Prajna (which concerns 'intensified effort'). On the other hand, the  reason why the third Prajna is active is that all progressive activities in  the eighth Bhumi, and in the higher Bhumis, whatever they may be, proceed  from the Subsequent Wisdom (Prsthalabdhajnana) which, in the course of pure  contemplation, arises spontaneously.

Among the  Buddhas in the final or Nistha stage (that of ultimate realization), the last  two Prajnas are both in the state of Bija and in actual manifestation. The  reason why the first is absent is that, in this final stage, everything that  is from Prayoga (the first Prajna) has, in fact, been abandoned.

On  examining the Paramitas and the Siksas from the point of view of their  self-nature (svabhava), it will be found that Adhisilam Siksa (commandments)  comprises Silaparamita; Adhicittam Siksa comprises the Dhyanaparamita; and  Adhiprajnam Siksa comprises the last five Paramitas. But, taking into account  the ‘escorts’, that is to say, the dharmas which accompany both the Paramitas  and the Siksas, there is reciprocal inclusion of the ten and the three.

On  examining the functions of the Paramitas and the Siksas, it will be perceived  that (a) Adhisila comprises: (i) the Danaparamita, because Dana is the  'preparatory provision' for Sila; (ii) the Silaparamita, which is Sila by  nature; (iii) the Ksantiparamita, because Ksanti is the escort of Sila [In  order not to violate the commandments, one must be patient]; (b) Adhicitta  comprises the Dhyanaparamita; (c) Adhiprajna comprises the last five  Paramitas; and (d) Viryaparamita comprises all the three Siksas, because it  helps all of them.

From  another point of view, Adhisila comprises the first four Paramitas, the three  enumerated above, and the Viryaparamita which protects it; Adhicitta  comprises the Dhyanaparamita and  Adhiprajna coniprises the last five Paramitas.


12. The Paramitas and the Five Stages

The ten  Paramitas exist in all the five stages; but it is in the stage of Bhavana  that their characteristics are most clearly manifested.

In the  course of the first two stages, for Bodhisattvas of instantaneous  realization, the Bijas of the Paramitas are pure and impure, but the  Paramitas in actual manifestation are exclusively impure. As for Bodhisattvas  who progress by gradual realization, both the Bijas of the Paramitas and the  Paramitas in actual manifestation are pure and impure, because these  Bodhisattvas have already obtained the pure contemplation of Pudgalasunyata.

In the  stage of Prativedha (that of unimpeded penetrating understanding), the Bijas  are pure and impure, while the actual Paramitas are pure.

In the  stage of Bhavana, up to and including the seventh Bhumi, the Paramitas,  whether in the state of Bija or in actual manifestation, are pure and impure.  From the eighth Bhumi, the Bijas are pure and impure, while the actual  Paramitas are exclusively pure.

Among the  Buddhas in the final stage of Nistha, the Bijas and actual Paramitas are all  exclusively pure.


13. Different Designations for the Paramitas

The ten  Paramita-virtues, among non-Buddhas, take successively three names.

1. 'Remote  Paramita’, in the course of the first Asamkhyeya (innumerable kalpas, i.e.,  countless aeons). - During this epoch, the force of charity (Dana) and of the  other virtues is so weak that, far from suppressing the klesas, the virtues  are suppressed by the klesas. Klesas enter into manifestation spon¬taneously  without prior reflection.

2.      'Proximate Paramita', in the course of the second Asamkhyeya. – During this  epoch, the force of charity and of the other virtues increases gradually: the  virtues are not suppressed by the klesas. On the contrary, they suppress the  klesas. The klesas no longer enter into manifestation unless voluntarily.

3.      'Mahaparamita', in the course of the third Asamkhyeya. - During this epoch,  the force of charity and of the other virtues has become very strong: the  virtues are capable of absolutely suppressing all klesas, which, from then  onwards, can never again enter into activity. However, there still remains  the subtle Jneyavarana, either in actual manifestation or in the state of  Bija; there remain aiso the Bijas of Klesavarana. The Paramitas are therefore  not yet perfect.

Distinctions  to be established among the Paramitas are without number. In order not to be  too elaborate and tedious, we shall limit ourselves to this summary.

In fact,  the ten Paramitas are practised in all the ten Bhumis; nevertheless, one may  attribute to each of the Bhumis the Paramita which is dominant in it.

Innumerable  are the moral practices of the ten Bhumis; however they are all comprised in  the ten Paramitas.


中譯(黃高証)

II 十波羅蜜

1、定義和種類

十勝行,即十種波羅蜜:

1 布施或慈善

布施有三:(1)財物布施,以滋養色身;(2) 無畏布施,使免除恐懼,以資益其心;(3)正法布施,以維繫善法。

2持戒

戒律有三種:(1)規範個人行為的戒律;(2)攝持善法的戒律;(3)饒益有情眾生的戒律。

3.忍辱

忍辱有三種:(1)忍受他人的怨恨和傷害;(2)平靜地安受悲傷和痛苦;(3)耐心審察諦觀於法。

4精進

精進有三種:(1)大誓願精進;(2)攝善法精進;(3) 造福眾生精進。

5靜慮

靜慮有三種:(1)進入三昧的靜慮;(2)引發神通力的定;(3)辦事定。

6 般若有三:(1)生空無分別慧(直觀我空);(2)法空無分別慧(直觀法空);(3)俱空無分別慧(直觀我法二空)。

7 善巧方便

方便有兩種:(1)迴心趨向大菩提(最高覺悟)的善巧方便;(2)使眾生免除痛苦的善巧方便。

8虔誠的誓願

願有二:(1)為求菩提而虔誠發願;(2)為利樂有情而發願。

9. 力量。

力量有兩種:(1)深思的力量;(2)修持的力量。這些力量能使前六波羅蜜相續無間。

10. 超然智慧

[根據《攝大乘論》的說法,此智由實踐前六波羅蜜而成就。] 智有兩種:(1)菩薩受用法樂的智慧;(2)成熟有情的智慧。

2十波羅蜜有哪些特性?

它們的本質是什麼?

1 布施,包含無貪及相應於無貪的身、語、意三業。

2 持戒,包括在戒壇受菩薩戒及持菩薩戒時的三業。

3  忍辱,由無瞋(不發火,原諒以往所受傷害)、精進、審慧,及相應於無瞋的三業所組成。

4 精進,以勤奮及其三業為性。

5 靜慮,只以定心為性 [不包括散亂心。]

6-10. 最後五波羅蜜,包括對佛法的決擇或辨別(即般若),因為《攝大乘論》說第六波羅蜜(般若)是根本智(基本智慧),後四者是後得智(即後起或源生於根本智的智慧)。

根據某些論師的說法,第八(願)波羅蜜包含欲、勝解、信,因為「願」是以欲等三法為自性  [這些論師對於其他波羅蜜沒有異議,唯獨主張:願不是以慧為自性。至於《攝大乘論》說願波羅蜜是後得智,那是因為菩薩在開發智慧的過程中,虔心發願。]

我們已經研究了波羅蜜的自性,也就是它們自身的本性。如果要將其相關輔行一併考慮,那麼十波羅蜜中的每一個,都具足所有的功德或美德。

3 明相門(七最勝)

這些行門必須有七種最勝,才可稱為波羅蜜。七最勝是:

1. 安住最勝:行者須安住於菩薩種性(種子性質),立最勝因。

2. 依止最勝:這意味著行門必須依止於大菩提心。

3. 意樂最勝:是指行者必須慈悲一切有情眾生。

4. 事業最勝:是指必須從事一切隨順度生的事業。

5. 巧便最勝:意味著波羅蜜必須是無相智所攝。這也就是在行善時,意識不執著於施者、受者或施物。

6. 迴向最勝:這意味著行者必須全然奉獻,將其功德,迴向無上菩提(究竟覺悟)。

7. 清淨最勝:這是指行門不可被二障染汙或混雜。

如果波羅蜜不含這七種最勝,則施等行就無法到彼岸。

由此可知,從施等十行門與波羅蜜(到彼岸)的關係,可以建立四種範疇:(1)亦施亦度,(2)施而非度,(3)度而非施,(4)非施非度。

4 波羅蜜的數量

菩薩在十地中,要對治十障,證十真如,所以波羅蜜不多也不少,恰好有十。

1.首先,前六波羅蜜之所以為六,不多不少,因為它們可以除滅六種相違障(慳吝、犯戒、瞋恚、懈怠、散亂、惡慧),如是漸修一切佛法(十力等),並逐漸成熟一切有情。這些在其它論典中都有說明。

2. 施等前三波羅蜜屬於“增上生道”,因為它們能各別招感鉅富、身體康健、妙眷屬;精進等後三者屬於“決定勝道”,因為它們能各別伏除煩惱,使眾生和佛法得到最大程度的成熟和開展。所有菩薩道都在這兩類範疇中。

3. 再者,菩薩依前三波羅蜜饒益有情:布施財物,避免傷害或折磨眾生,耐心忍受他人的暴怒,從而利益眾生。最後的精進等三波羅蜜可對治煩惱。精進波羅蜜雖未能伏滅煩惱,但它勤修所有善品加行以對治之。靜慮能永伏煩惱,而般若能永滅煩惱。

4. 此外,由於前三波羅蜜,菩薩不會久住涅槃;由後三波羅蜜,菩薩不住生死(輪迴流轉):因此,這六波羅蜜是無住處涅槃(在涅槃中不執著涅槃)的前行(即資糧)。

此所以六波羅蜜不多不少,恰好有六。。

5. 十波羅蜜中的最後四個必唯有四,因為它們的作用是確保前六波羅蜜趨於圓滿。

方便善巧,能輔助施等前三波羅蜜;願者,可助第四精進波羅蜜;力者,有助於第五靜慮波羅蜜;智者,能助第六般若波羅蜜,趨於圓滿。

這些論點在《解深密經》中有詳細的解釋。

5波羅蜜的次第

十波羅蜜的次第,是由前者引生後者,由後者淨化前者。

此外,前行粗而後行細;前前易修,後後難習。

6波羅蜜的名稱

為什麼這些行門總名為「波羅蜜」(Paramitas),別名為「布施波羅蜜」等?

這些總名和別名,在其他的論典中已經解釋過。[據窺基大師所言,在《瑜伽論》卷78和《解深密經》中有五種解釋,而在阿毗達摩則有十二種解釋。同時,從其詞源來看,“para”指“彼岸”,“mita指“到達”因此,Paramitas即‘到達彼岸’;也就是說,六波羅蜜將讓行者渡過死亡之海,到達涅槃。]

7波羅蜜的修持

如《阿毘達磨集論》等典籍所言,菩薩依此五種修法,使十波羅蜜皆得圓滿。即:(1)依止任持修,(2) 依止作意修,(3)依止意樂修,(4)依止方便修,(5)依止自在修,心無罣礙,離諸邪見。

8互相涵攝

有說,十波羅蜜中的每一個都包含了其他九波羅蜜,因為它們是相互關聯的。

修習前面的波羅蜜,能夠引發後面的波羅蜜。若依此觀點,則前者包括後者,因為後行必須依藉前行;然而前行不待後行而立,故後者不必然包括前者。

但從另一方面來看,修習後行可以持淨前行,若依據此觀點,後者包含前者,反之則不然。

有關波羅蜜的純雜修習,有四種情況[,(1)非波羅蜜的布施,如出於自利而行布施,不是為了證得菩提;(2) 非布施的波羅蜜,比如自己沒錢布施,但鼓勵別人這樣做,並且隨喜;(3)亦布施亦波羅蜜的行為,例如在施捨中將功德迴向阿耨多羅三藐三菩提;(4)偽善行,實際上既不是布施也不是波羅蜜……窺基大師註。]

9十和六

實際上,波羅蜜共十個,有時僅言前六,那是因為把最後四個包含在第六般若波羅蜜。波羅蜜被分成十個的原因是,第六般若波羅蜜唯攝無分別智(根本智,沒有分別),而後四者能緣世間法或俗諦,屬於後得智攝(後得智即後起或源自於根本智的智慧)。

10十波羅蜜之果

這十波羅蜜的果,有漏者有四(等流、異熟、士用、增上),離繫果除外;無漏者亦有四(等流、離繫、士用、增上),異熟果除外。

《對法論》卷12說,波羅蜜有五果。這是考慮到果的相互資助,或者是總括無漏和有漏的波羅蜜果。

11波羅蜜和三學

十波羅蜜和戒定慧三學,彼此互攝。

1. 戒學(即菩薩在行持上要遵守的戒律)有三:

1)律儀戒,此戒是對於應捨之法,完全戒除;

2)攝善法戒,對於應該修證之法,努力實修實證;

3)饒益有情戒,意指讓所有眾生獲得利樂安穩。

這三者和二乘戒之間,有同有異。

菩薩戒甚深廣大,其他論典已有詳述。

2.定學有四:

1)大乘光明定:以此為定,是因為這種冥想可以產生智慧之光,明照大乘法的見地、教義、實踐和證果。

2)集福王定:此之為定,是因為這種禪定可以任運地積累無邊福德,就像王者的勢力是無與倫比的。

3)賢守定:以此為定,是因為這種禪定可以守護和維護世出世間的善法。

4)健行定,此之為定,是因為這種禪定是佛菩薩等大雄行持之定。

這四種定的特點和區別,在於它們的所緣、對治、功能、果位、活動。

3. 慧學有三:

1)加行無分別慧:強調進德修業的重要,積極努力。

2)根本無分別慧。

3)後得無分別慧:即後起或源生於根本智的無差別慧。

a、關於這三種慧的自性、所依、因緣、所緣、活動等方面,可以在其他論典(如《攝大乘論》)中找到解釋。

b、 五位與三慧

在前兩位(資糧和加行),三慧的種子皆備,但唯有第一加行無分別慧起現行。

在第三通達位(通達無礙的階段),三慧的種子皆有,現行則唯在第二根本和第三後得無分別慧。缺第一加行無分別慧,因為通達位(第三階段)沒有加行。

在第四階段的修習位中,七地以前仍有分別,三慧種子與現行都有;從第八地以上,三慧種子仍在。唯最後二慧起現行。第一加行慧不起現行的原因是,無功用道(無漏、率爾、任運、無功用的階段)與第一加行慧(積極用功)不相容。另一方面,第三後得慧之所以現起,是因為第八地以上的所作所為,無論什麼舉動,都是後得慧在無漏觀中任運起用。

到了最後的究竟位(究竟實證階段),諸佛唯有根本、後得二慧的種子、現行。沒有第一慧的現行種子。原因是,在這最後階段,已捨去一切加行慧的現行、種子。

從波羅蜜和三學的自性來看,會發現戒學只攝戒波羅蜜;定學唯攝靜慮波羅蜜;慧學唯涵攝最後的五波羅蜜。但是,若把彼此的輔助關係也考慮進來,則三學通於十波羅蜜,是互相涵攝的。

從波羅蜜和三學的作用來看,會發現(a)戒學包括:(i)施波羅蜜,因為布施是三學的“資糧”,(ii)戒波羅蜜,其本質與戒學相同,(iii)忍辱波羅蜜,因為忍辱是三學的助伴 [為了不犯戒,必須耐煩],(b)定學包括靜慮波羅蜜,(c)慧學攝最後五波羅蜜,(d)精進波羅蜜包含所有三學,因為它對三學有策勵的作用。

從波羅蜜和三學的顯相來看,戒學攝前四波羅蜜:施、戒、忍、精進(護戒)波羅蜜;定學唯攝靜慮波羅蜜,慧學攝最後五波羅蜜。

12波羅蜜與五位

這五位都有十波羅蜜;但在修習位,其特性最為明顯。

在資糧、加行二位中,對頓悟菩薩來說,波羅蜜的種子通有漏、無漏,而其現行唯通有漏。對於漸悟菩薩,波羅蜜的種子和現行俱通有漏、無漏。因為這些菩薩已經成就生空無漏觀。

在通達位(通達無礙的見道階段),種子通有漏、無漏,而現行唯通無漏。

在修習位,七地之前,波羅蜜的種、現俱通有漏、無漏。從第八地開始,種子通有漏、無漏,現行唯是無漏。

在最後的究竟位,諸佛的種子、現行唯是無漏。

13 波羅蜜的不同稱呼

在成佛前的因位,十波羅蜜有三種稱呼:

1.名遠波羅蜜:在第一阿僧祇劫(無數劫,無數億年)的歷程中,布施和其他行門的力量如此薄弱,非但無法調伏煩惱,反而被煩惱壓制。因此,煩惱不知不覺地現起。

2. 名近波羅蜜:在第二阿僧祇劫中,布施和其他行門的力量逐漸增強:這些行門並沒有被煩惱壓制。相反地,它們調伏了煩惱。除非是故意為之,否則煩惱不再現起。

3. 名大波羅蜜,在第三阿僧祇劫時,布施與其他行門的力量非常強大:這些行門能夠徹底調伏所有煩惱,因此煩惱永不現行。然而此時仍有所知障的微細現行或種子,及煩惱障的微細種子,所以還沒究竟圓滿。

十波羅蜜的義類差別無窮無盡,為了不過於繁雜,僅略示其綱目。

事實上,十地皆須通修十波羅蜜;然而每一地有其主修之波羅蜜。

雖然菩薩十地的行門無量,但都包含在十波羅蜜中。


尚德按:

此次《成唯識論》談要修十波羅蜜,也就是把學佛、成佛的修證細節說出來了。每一點都可以寫一本小書。

大禪師八指頭陀說:

「六根不悟是六賊,六根悟了六波羅。」

眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意的根根是六根,離不開地水火風四大和色受想行識五蘊。凡夫眾生,一旦被本空的四大和為幻的五蘊綑綁,便死死的陷在煩惱中,不得解脫。所以要學佛、參禪的道理在此。

道理比較容易了解,因此《圓覺經》說:

「知幻即離,不作方便;離幻即覺,亦無漸次。」

悟道的《楞嚴經》講:理是可以頓悟的,但事上要歷劫修行。

多說實在沒有用,近來我常常反省自己,真在佛法上修行,要從甚麼地方開始?

《佛性論》說:「學佛首先要吃苦,要信佛,還要聰明。」

所以真學佛,一開始還是非修頭陀行不可。這就難怪釋迦牟尼佛在雪山苦行六年。

成佛的《法華》強調龍女的「施」,十波羅蜜一開始也是講「布施」,《金剛經》更強調,要在三輪托空中,無相布施。

《法華經》中,普賢菩薩作了總結:

一者、為諸佛護念,

二者、植眾德本,

三者、入正定聚,

四者、發救一切眾生之心。

這四點綜合的包括了十波羅蜜。

總括地說,如果真要學佛,那就必須信佛、依佛、歸佛、行佛,最後成佛,也不認為自己是佛。

慢慢來吧!

初發心即成正等正覺。

達摩來中國,要找一個不騙的人。

人都是騙自己,騙別人,被別人騙。天天在學佛,莫時時在騙自己。

千萬莫騙也

 

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待續


 

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